An architectural style origin from Europe sine 11th century, huge churches required to provide accommodation to monks and also pilgrims who are visiting the saints’ relics. Romanesque churches are designed in such a way that it incorporates windows, doors, heavy barrel or groin vaults to make the nave roof stable, the Romanesque churches usually have an extensive architectural plan which not only includes chapels for priests but have ample space for pilgrims and a huge transept.
In 800 C.E., the roman empire got a newly crowned emperor, and the first step he took was to bring out Rome from its dark ages after the fall of Rome in the fifth century, by building Romanesque churches or churches influenced by the Roman style of architecture and to expand his reign. In Britain, the Romanesque churches are referred to as Norman because of the conqueror William who is known for his invasion of Britain in 1066 and from Normandy in northern France. Durham, Gloucester cathedrals, and Southwell minster are some famous and great examples of Norman and Romanesque churches.
Arches are one of the most prominent features of Romanesque churches mainly called the roman arch. Thick walls along with small windows almost Romanesque churches are huge architectural structures with thick walls and small windows and most of the monumental buildings are built this way. One of the techniques that date back to the ancient Roman basilica is barrel vaults, which the builders use to compress different stones together to make the structure of churches tougher which helps in fire protection also. Romanesque churches lack ornamentation, most of the buildings are bare and only have stonework in a few or fewer spots This lack of detailing is especially evident in the Romanesque age before the year 1000 C.E.
Gothic Or Romanesque
Romanesque churches and gothic churches are different from each other in many aspects this is because as the technology was upgrading and the people were able to build more huge and eye-appealing buildings in the gothic period, Romanesque churches have used old techniques. Due to lesser access to technology the structures looked less in detail and had few ornamentations. However the new building techniques used in the gothic period were pointed arches with buttresses to support the roof allowing the builders to use stained glasses to give their buildings not only beautiful looks but also allowing light to enter inside the buildings, as said before Romanesque churches lack in detail, whereas the gothic churches have highly detailed artwork on walls, the detailing is more related to the European times, back in time the higher religious authorities were against the art but later it all was allowed as the art represented the chapters from the bible. Some of the known Romanesque churches are,
- Pisa cathedral- Pisa, Tuscany, Italy built from 1063-1092.
- Cathedral of Monreale- Sicily, Italy built-in 1172.
- San Miniato al monte Florence, Tuscany, Italy started in 1013.
- Speyer cathedral- Speyer, Rhineland- palatinate, Germany built in 1030.
Romanesque churches date back to being one of the oldest architectural styles beginning from 800 C.E. when the newly crowned emperor started building Rome again by building churches and expanding his reign, however, the structures used to be less in detail and lack in ornamentation with thick walls and small windows and these qualities somewhere make these buildings monumental and historic and attract millions of tourists around the world.