Romanesque art had developed approximately in 1000 AD in England to the rise of the Gothic style in the 12th century or later. Romanesque art was the first major movement of the medieval in field of art. it was developed from the fall of Rome. It revolutionized the concept of art by including architecture, stained glass, ecclesiastical metal works, sculptures of all types.
Characteristics Of Romanesque Arts Of The Middle Ages
The Romanesque art of the age was characterized by a plethora of both sculptures and paintings. It continues into following the Byzantine iconographic models for the most common subjects of the churches. The Christs in Majesty, the Last Judgement and scenes from the Life Of Christ are some of the best examples of the Romanesque Art. The manuscripts of this age were lavishly decorated. These include the Bible and the psalters. The columns of the capitals had elaborate carvings of various figures. The colours used were highly striking and mostly primary. Stained glasses came into a lot of usage.
Status was given to precious metals in that. Metal work including enamelling was a sophisticated affair. Spectacular shrines holding relics till date are surviving in Rome to testify the grandeur of the art of that era. The best examples of Romanesque art surviving are The Shrine of The Three Kings at Cologne, the Cathedral by Nicholas of Verdun, The Stavelot Triptych, and Reliquary of St. Maurus are examples of Mosan enamel work. Not many beautiful pieces of the period have stood the test of time. Currently, there are a few secular pieces like mirror cases and jewelry that survive with their majesty. The bronze Gloucester candlestick and the brass font of 1108-1117 are two examples of the finest metal castings. They are made with extreme dedication. With the fall of the Western Roman Empire, traditional sculpting art started to die out. Some of the life-sized sculptures were made out of plaster or stucco.
The Romanesque art reflected the rising stability in the political and economic sectors in Europe. There were higher revenues for the church. This helped to create more stained-glass art, fresco paintings and illuminated manuscripts. Bibles were more illustrated and there were inspirational mural paintings. Romanesque miniature paintings were mostly illustrated in manuscripts which were developed alongside murals created in the period. Rome, Salzburg, Cluny, and Canterbury were important centres of the development of these forms of arts. Some important works include the Moralia Manuscript, St Albans Psalter, Psalter of Henry de Blois and Lambeth Bible. In Hardham which is at the South of England, the interiors of a small church was covered with small fresco paintings. These paintings are strongly influenced by Romanesque Biblical art. You will see influences of same style of the series in the churches across Denmark (Orreslev, Jorlunde, etc). Another example of highly influenced Romanesque art in the frescoes of the charming little church of St. John the Baptist at Clayton. This has a strong Oriental influence.